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The official discourse always denied the existence of apartheid or of a "colour bar" was always denied. In reality, this racial segregation did exist however. Black people were denied access to cinemas, had a separate public means of transport, were not allowed to take managerial positions, did not live in "white" areas, had to abide by a curfew, hit a copper ceiling on the labour market and the social ladder, etc. Pierre Ryckmans' attestation of registration in the whites population register of Leopoldville (Kinshasa), 1938.
NAB, Archives Pierre Ryckmans, no. 58/20.